• Income group: high income
  • National biodiversity index: 
  • CO2 emissions (kilotons): 56,373
  • Population: 5,312,400
  • NDC submitted by nation
  • No details in adaptation plan
  • Low climate risk
Vision Statement

Enriching Singapore’s urban biodiversity and extensive greenery is part of the national vision for a “City in a Garden”.

Singapore recognises the need to track its rich urban biodiversity in a manner that can integrate conservation and adaptation actions. 

Singapore will continue efforts to safeguard its biodiversity despite an urban environment. The array of natural ecosystems (including evergreen rain forest, mangroves, freshwater streams, freshwater swamp forest, coral reefs and mudflats) will continue to be conserved, with targeted programs for habitat enhancement and species recovery where required.

Empirical evidence from Singapore on NbS effectiveness

Articles about NbS from Singapore

    Stated Vulnerabilites

  • Agriculture / livestock
  • Water
  • Health and wellbeing
  • Urban settlements
  • Adaptation Outcomes
    • Increase resilience / reduce risk
    • Protect against extreme events / disasters
    • Food security
    • Water security
    • Protect biodiversity / ecosystems

Current Nature-based Action in Adaptation Plan

Extensive roadside tree planting contributes to moderating temperatures in the heart of the city.

Over 300 parks and a network of park connectors provide relief from the hot urban tropical climate.

Large freshwater bodies surrounded by forested catchments help to ameliorate the urban island heat effect and conserve our rich natural heritage of flora and fauna.