Costa Rica

  • Income group: upper middle income
  • National biodiversity index: 0.82
  • CO2 emissions (kilotons): 7,759
  • Population: 4,301,712
  • NDC submitted by nation
  • Detailed adaptation plan
  • Medium-low climate risk
Vision Statement

The country will continue with its Green and Inclusive Development policy through local actions in adaptation, such as, inter alia, the strengthening of conservation programs and expanding the environmental services payments program to include Ecosystem based Adaptation.

Ongoing efforts to develop adaptation measures for the water and biodiversity sectors, including the National Conservation Areas System (SINAC), have resulted in the launch of a National Ecosystem-based Adaptation Strategy. Increase focus will be given to building resilience from a sustainable development, food security and rural productivity perspective.

Empirical evidence from Costa Rica on NbS effectiveness

Articles about NbS from Costa Rica

    Stated Vulnerabilites

  • Agriculture / livestock
  • Water
  • Health and wellbeing
  • Biodiversity / ecosystems
  • Fisheries
  • Highly vulnerable groups
  • Transport / infrastructure
  • Energy
  • Rural population
  • Tourism
  • Settlements in general
  • Urban settlements
  • Adaptation Outcomes
    • Increase resilience / reduce risk
    • Protect against extreme events / disasters
    • Food security
    • Water security
    • Protect biodiversity / ecosystems
    • Human well-being / health
    • Economy
    • Sustainable development / green growth
  • Broad type of indirect action
    • Investment in climate change research / monitoring
    • Disaster risk reduction
    • Institutional capacity building
    • Community capacity building
    • Health research / action

Current Nature-based Action in Adaptation Plan

Integral environment management through agro-forestry systems and watershed management, the adaptive co-management at the watershed level.

In the past 30 years the country has been able to revert one negative effect of the agro-exporter model which reduced forests, been able to shift from 26% forest coverage to a 54.4% by 2013. To accomplish this shift, the country developed several strategies, a National Protected Area System (SINAC) was established which, today, covers 26.5% of the national territory, reforesting and private land forest management was promoted and facilitated, the Environmental Services Payment program was created and land use changes of forest lands were prohibited by law.

Planned Nature-based Action in Adaptation Plan

Costa Rica is committed to develop its adaptation practice from an ecosystem based adaptation focus, building on the commitment to increase forest coverage to 60%.

There are opportunities for exploring synergies between adaptation practices and the reduction of emissions through avoided deforestation. These include, inter alia, the consolidation of FONAFIFO’s Environmental Services Payments program and the Forest Certification program as a mechanism to promote the sustainable development forest resources and effective protection of water sources for all 81 counties of Costa Rica; the promotion of the National Biological Corridor System and the National Protected Areas System (SINAC).

Planned Nature-based Action in Adaptation Plan

Increase forest coverage to 60%.