• Income group: low income
  • National biodiversity index: 0.726
  • CO2 emissions (kilotons): 840
  • Population: 10,537,222
  • NDC submitted by nation
  • Detailed adaptation plan
  • Low climate risk
Vision Statement

Rwanda’s long term vision is to become a climate resilient economy, with strategic objectives to achieve Energy Security and a Low Carbon Energy Supply that supports the development of Green Industry and Services; Sustainable Land Use and Water Resource Management that result in Food Security, appropriate Urban Development and preservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, as well as to ensure Social Protection, Improved Health and Disaster Risk Reduction that reduces vulnerability to climate change impacts.

Empirical evidence from Rwanda on NbS effectiveness

    Stated Vulnerabilites

  • Agriculture / livestock
  • Water
  • Health and wellbeing
  • Transport / infrastructure
  • Forestry
  • Energy
  • Rural population
  • Tourism
  • Adaptation Outcomes
    • Increase resilience / reduce risk
    • Protect against extreme events / disasters
    • Food security
    • Protect biodiversity / ecosystems
    • Human well-being / health
    • Economy
    • Livelihood security
    • Protect natural capital / ecosystem services
    • Energy security
  • Broad type of indirect action
    • Investment in climate change research / monitoring
    • Disaster risk reduction
    • Institutional capacity building
    • Community capacity building
    • Raising public awareness
    • Health research / action

Current Nature-based Action in Adaptation Plan

Promote afforestation/reforestation of designated areas through enhanced germplasm and technical practices in planting and post-planting processes;

Mainstreaming agro ecology techniques using spatial plant stacking as in agro forestry, kitchen gardens, nutrient recycling, and water conservation to maximise sustainable food production.

Planned Nature-based Action in Adaptation Plan

Rwanda intends to improve the management of its forest resources by increasing efforts in using quality germplasm, planting trees at the right time (rain season) and improving post-planting care. Furthermore, the country intends to use mixed-species approaches which contribute greatly to the achievement of both mitigation objectives and adaptation benefits of ecosystem resilience and biodiversity.

Employ Improved Forest Management for degraded forest resources; Land scarcity is a primary constraint to the expansion of Rwanda’s forest resources. Rwanda should maximize the productivity of its many degraded forest plantations which present an opportunity to increase biomass supply without converting additional land.

Rwanda intends to mainstream agro ecology technologies in its current agriculture intensification programme and other natural resource-based livelihood programmes.

Soil conservation and land husbandry – 90% of Rwanda’s cropland is on slopes ranging from 5 to 50% which makes it vulnerable to climate change impacts like soil erosion leading to permanent fertility loss. Rwanda intends to expand its soil conservation and land husbandry programmes.

Planned Nature-based Action in Adaptation Plan

Through this strategic action, the country’s target is to achieve an overall 30% sustained forest cover of the total national land surface by 2030 from 28.8% in 2013.

By 2030, Rwanda will implement public private partnerships to sustainably managing all forestry plantations through multiyear contracts with forests operators (in cooperatives) who will plant and maintain young plantations until they reach their commercial size.

100% of the households involved in agriculture production will be implementing agro forestry sustainable food production by 2030.

Installation of land protection structures like radical and progressive terraces where these structures will be installed on 100% of the relevant area by 2030.

Development and implementation of an intensive agroforestry programme with a target of covering 100% of arable land by 2030.