Engineered Actions

Engineered (or “grey”) adaptation actions involve the construction of static, manmade infrastructure such as sea walls, levees and irrigation channels. Scroll down to explore which nations include engineered adaptation actions in their NDCs, and the extent to which NBS or hybrid actions are also included.

% nations including engineered actions (by income group)

Engineered actions are included in two-thirds of NDCs with adaptation plans

Engineered actions are explicitly included in the adaptation plans of 93 NDCs, of which all but two (Turkey and Turkmenistan) refer to Nature-based Solutions and/or hybrid measures. More nations refer to NBS than they do to engineered actions in almost all regions of the world (explore map below).

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